In field activities such as geological surveys, mountaineering, hiking, adventure, and tourism, in order to prevent getting lost and correctly determine the location and direction, it is necessary to grasp the positioning and lateral methods. In nature, some animals have the instinct to distinguish directions, such as pigeons. Some members of humanity also have this ability. However, most people do not have or have only such potential. Therefore, the orientation of the field depends mainly on experience and tools.
There are many ways to determine the direction and position in the field. Here are some common methods.
Use a compass (pointer)
Place the compass or compass needle horizontally to center the bubble. When the magnetic needle is at rest, the black end marked with â€œNâ€ refers to the north. In addition to measuring positive northward outwards, the compass or compass can also measure the specific orientation of a target by pointing the compass at the target, or aligning the 0 mark on the dial to the target. The 0 scale and the magnetic midpoint are on the same straight line. After the compass is level, the scale at the N end is the orientation from the measurement point to the target. For example, the N point of the magnetic needle points at 36Â°. The target is 36Â° northeast of the measurement position.
Although using a compass or compass needle to identify the direction is simple and quick, but need to pay attention: 1, as far as possible to maintain the level; 2, not too close to the magnetic material; 3, do not mistaken the north side of the magnetic needle, create 180 Â° direction error; 4. Master the magnetic declination in the active area and correct it.
Using the sun
On a sunny day, according to sunrise and sunset, you can easily know the east and the west, and you can judge the square, but it can only be roughly estimated. The more accurate measurements are the following methods: 1. The direction of the watch. Half of the time is half the sun, and 12 is the north." Generally speaking, between 9 am and 4 pm, the directions can be quickly identified, facing the sun in the direction of half the time, and the north is at 12 o'clock. For example, at 14:40 in the afternoon, half of it is 7:20. When facing the sun, then 12 refers to the north, or the table is placed flat, the hour hand points to the sun, and the hour hand extends in the opposite direction of the bisector of the 12th hour. The direction is the north; or set the watch and place a stick upright in the center of the watch to turn the watch so that the stick's shadow coincides with the hour hand, and the bisect between the hour hand and the 12th hour is north.
It must be noted that: (1) When judging the direction, the watch should be placed flat; (2) It should not be used around midday in the region between the north and south latitudes of 20Â°30â€². That is to say, the standard timeline shall prevail. Each direction should be 15Â° plus 1 Hours, minus 1 hour to 15Â° west. 2. The sunshade is sunny. A wooden stick is erected on the ground. The shadow of the stick moves with the change of the position of the sun. The shadows are the shortest at noon. The line at the end is a straight line. The vertical line of the straight line is north and south. direction. A series of concentric circles are drawn on a 50 x 50 cm drawing paper. The concentric circles are radii in 1 cm increments. They are nailed to the plate and fixed horizontally. A 12-15 cm long steel needle or needle is inserted vertically. In the center of the circle. When the position of the sun changes, the endpoints of the shadow will always intersect the concentric circles, plot these points, and then connect the two points on the same circle in a straight line, connecting the midpoints of these lines with the center of the circle. This line is the north and south. Directional line, the direction of the arc top is north.
At night, you can judge the direction based on the Polaris and Southern Cross.
1. Polaris: The Polaris is located in the north of the sky. Its exposed elevation angle is equivalent to the local latitude. According to this, Polaris can be quickly found. It is usually based on the Big Dipper (Great Bear Constellation) or W Star (Constellation). The Big Dipper is a seven bright star shaped like a spoon. It is the North Star that connects the two betas of the spoon to the alpha and extends about five times. When you don't see the Big Dipper, you can look for the Polaris based on the W star, the immortal constellation. The zodiac constellation consists of five bright stars, shaped like the "W" letter, and the opening direction of the letters is about twice the width of the opening.
2. Southern Cross: In the area south of 23Â°30â€² north latitude, the Southern Cross is sometimes seen at night. It is composed of four bright stars and is similar to the word â€œTenâ€. At the lower right, it consists of two stars from Î³ to Î±. Four-and-a-half-half of the length of the connection (no star) is positive south.
Features and Plant Characteristics
Sometimes the features of the fields and the growth of plants in the field are good directional signs. Adding this knowledge can help you quickly identify the direction.
a. Housing: General doors open south, especially in northern China;
b. temples: usually open to the south, especially the main buildings in the temple group;
c. Prominent features: Moss plants that are more humid and may grow low on the north side of the base.
2, plant growth characteristics:
a. Generally shady slopes, that is, north slopes, low ferns and vines are more developed than sunny ones.
b. The foliage on the sunny side of a single plant is more luxuriant, while the trunk on the northward side is likely to grow moss.
c. The trunks of many tree trunks in northern China have clear annual rings. The annual rings on the south side are more sparse, and the rings on the north side are closer.
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