Application and Development of Plastic Hollow Molding Technology

I. Introduction

With the development of China's petrochemical industry, automobile industry, packaging industry and construction industry, the development of the plastics industry has grown rapidly, and the plastics industry has become a sunrise industry in China. In recent years, the annual increase in the output of plastic products has reached more than 10%. It is estimated that by 2005, the output of plastics in China will reach 25 million tons, and the annual growth of plastics machinery driven by the plastics industry will be more than 30%. According to incomplete statistics, in 2002 the output value of China's plastics machinery industry was about 10 billion yuan.

Plastic machinery has the largest production and sales volume, and the most widely used products are injection molding machines, extruder production lines, and blow molding machines. These three types of products account for more than 85% of the domestic plastics machinery industry output value, the number of units and the weight. The market share of hollow blow molding equipment is about RMB 500 million.

Second, domestic hollow products processing methods and applications

Hollow products molding methods include blow molding process and rotational molding process. At present, hollow products in China are mainly based on blow molding.

According to the method of parison molding, blow molding can be divided into four types: extrusion blow molding, injection stretch blow molding, injection blow molding, and co-extrusion blow molding.

1. Extrusion blow molding

Extrusion blow molding process is mainly raw materials plasticized by the extruder, delivered to the storage head (or continuous head), through the head extrusion parison, parison placed in the mold to blow into products, and then Cool and remove the product.

At present, the largest amount of 5L to 1000L hollow products in China is the extrusion blow molding process. The main raw materials used are HDPE, PP, ABS, PC and so on. The main products are all kinds of chemical product packaging barrels, automotive fuel tanks, automotive ventilation pipe fittings, desktop boards and other industrial products. The typical representative product of the extrusion molding process is a 200L double L-ring barrel. In extrusion molding, the most complex and technically difficult process is the formation of double-L-ring barrels.

Domestic equipment currently used for extrusion molding (referred to as hollow machine) is mainly based on domestic equipment. Among 20L-1000L equipment, Shaanxi Qinchuan Machinery Development Co., Ltd. (referred to as Qinchuan Development) has a market share of over 70%. Among the equipment that produces 200L double L-ring barrels, Qinchuan has a market share of over 80%. In 2002, the output of domestic 200L double L-ring barrels exceeded 3 million and consumed 300,000 tons of plastic. Qinchuan Development is the first manufacturer to develop extrusion blow molding equipment in China. It is a heavy industry enterprise that produces plastic machinery, gear grinding machines, machining centers and other equipment. It has strong R&D strength and machinery manufacturing capabilities, and it is rich in blow molding technology. experience of.

Extrusion products manufacturing companies are mainly located in East China (Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Shandong), South China, and North China. The main manufacturers are: Shanghai Pudong Gonglu Plastic Container Co., Ltd., Shanghai Fanshun Industrial Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Wujiang Chunxin Plastic Factory, Changzhou Yueyang Plastic Container Co., Ltd., Dalian No. 13 Plastic Factory, and Dongxing, Nanhai City, Guangdong Province. Can Making Co., Ltd.

2. Injection stretch blow molding

Injection stretch blow molding is a biaxial stretch oriented blow molding, which is a method in which a preform is axially stretched by a mechanical method in a viscoelastic state of a polymer, and a preform is molded by radially inflating the preform with compressed air. The molding method is characterized by the same axial and radial draw ratio, can improve the mechanical properties of blown containers, impermeability, transparency, and reduce product wall thickness, which is the thinnest wall thickness of products in blow molding. A process.

Injection stretch blow molding is mainly used for molding 0.2 to 20L, the shape of a round or oval container, such as beverage bottles, purified water bottles, edible oil bottles. This kind of product is used in a large amount in the market, so the equipment requires high production efficiency and good reliability. The main raw materials used in the injection blow process are PET, PVC, PP, PEN, and others.

Injection blow process can be divided into automatic one-step method and automatic two-step method.

At present, the domestic market for PET bottles produced by high-speed technology using injection blow blows is huge, and the annual growth rate is also very large. The production equipment for PET bottles is mainly imported. The funds used for the introduction of foreign PET equipment at home are at least 1.5 billion yuan each year for the production of PET. The equipment for heat-resistant bottles is all imported equipment. Faced with such a huge market, domestic blow-molding equipment manufacturers have almost nothing to do, and they are powerless for PET beer bottles with huge market potential. This is worth thinking of every hollow equipment manufacturer.

The professional PET bottle manufacturers in China include Zhuhai Zhongfu, Shanghai Zijiang, Wahaha, Huiyuan, Kangshifu, Nongfushanquan, and so on. Their equipment is imported.

3. Injection blow molding

There are three stations in the injection blow molding process, each of which is an injection molding preform for the injection molding machine, the second station is a preform blowing molding product in a blow mold, and the third station is an ejected product. Similar to the extrusion blow molding process, the injection blow blow has a large radial blow-up ratio and a small axial blow-up ratio.

Injection blow molding is suitable for various thermoplastic raw materials such as: PE, PP, PS, PVC, PC, etc. It can be molded into various shapes of containers. The product can replace glass bottles, mainly used for packaging medicines, cosmetics, food, daily necessities, pesticides, etc. .

The equipment currently used in the injection blow molding process is mainly an automatic injection blow molding machine. The main manufacturers of this equipment in China are Shantou Jinming Plastic Equipment Co., Ltd. and Jiangsu Weida Company.

4. Multi-layer co-extruded hollow blow molding

Multi-layer co-extrusion blow molding is widely used in the field of blown film. At present, more than 80% of packaging films in developed countries use multi-layer co-extruded films. The main purpose of multi-layer co-extrusion blow molding is to increase the barrier properties of the container to CO2, O2 or gasoline. The process is to extrude and blow several different raw materials into hollow products through a composite head. The main products are: high-grade automotive fuel tanks, more toxic pesticide packaging, and the number of layers is from 2 to 6 layers.

Multi-layer blow molding is a high-end technology for hollow blow molding. At present, Shaanxi Qinchuan Machinery Development Co., Ltd. has successfully developed a hollow machine for the production of six-story high-grade automobile fuel tanks. The maximum volume of products is 500L, and three units have been delivered to users. This equipment fills the gap in the domestic market and the comprehensive technical indicators have reached or even surpassed that of similar German equipment.

The layout of domestic hollow product processing enterprises:

Plastic processing companies in Guangdong, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Shanghai are among the best in the country in both quantity and output. The total number of plastics processing companies in five provinces and cities accounts for about 48% of the country's total, and the output of plastic products accounts for 1/3 to 1/2 of the national total.

According to the statistics of the National Plastics Processing Information Center in early 2000, domestic plastic container processing is mainly distributed in economically developed provinces such as East China and South China.

According to the “Tenth Five-Year Plan” of the National Plastics Industry and the 2005 Regulations, it is determined that the growth rate of China’s plastic product production in the period from 2000 to 2005 is expected to be 10%. According to market forecasts, the output of packaging plastic products by 2005 was 5.5 million tons, accounting for 22% of the total output.

Third, the development of domestic hollow molding equipment

At present, there are more than 10 domestic companies that produce hollow molding equipment, and there is a big difference in their technological level. There are not many companies that have comprehensive strength in R&D, manufacturing and technical services. Some hollow equipment manufacturers have weak technical strength and cannot fully understand the plastic hollow molding process. The equipment and molds produced cannot meet the requirements of users and the requirements for raw material molding. Products that are produced are unqualified or cannot be produced in a stable manner.

Shaanxi Qinchuan Machinery Development Co., Ltd. is a hollow machine manufacturer with the strongest R&D strength and the strongest mechanical manufacturing capability in China. Qinchuan Development began to develop hollow machines in the early 1980s and has become China's largest hollow machine manufacturing base. The Qinchuan Development Technology Research Institute of Qinchuan Development Co., Ltd. is a state-level technology center and has 15 research institutes. The Institute established a postdoctoral mobile station and established a national CIMS center. Among the more than 200 researchers, there are two PhDs and three professor-level senior engineers. The company's machinery manufacturing level is in a leading position in the machinery industry, with the advantages of "three precisions" of precision machining, precision measurement, and precision assembly. It has a number of patented technologies in plastic machinery.

After more than two decades of development, plastic machinery developed by Qinchuan has developed into a fifth-generation product. The fifth generation of products in the machine, electricity, liquid, in the hollow molding process research and mold research in the domestic leading position, reaching or approaching the international level. The fifth-generation products use patented extruder technology and optimized head technology; electrical uses foreign high-profile brands of high-performance PLC; hydraulic and pneumatic components using foreign famous brand products. Qinchuan has developed a leading position in the field of automation control and molding process principle research.

Qinchuan has developed major new products developed in recent years:

1. SCJ230 hollow machine

The SCJ230 hollow machine is mainly used for the production of 200L double L-ring barrels. This product has passed the state-level appraisal in 1995 and won the Ministry of Machinery Technology Progress Award in 1996. Nearly 40 units have been sold to the market, blocking imports. The SCJ230A, an improved replacement product that was introduced to the market in 2003, has higher reliability and higher production efficiency. The product quality produced can meet the requirements of various types of dangerous goods packaging and has a higher performance-cost ratio.

2. SCJC500×6 multilayer hollow machine

With the development of automobile industry technology and the continuous improvement of environmental protection and safety requirements in various countries, the requirements for seepage performance of plastic fuel tanks in various countries have become higher and higher. Qinchuan aims at the development of domestic high-end automotive fuel tanks and is the first in China to develop a six-layer plastic fuel tank production facility SCJC500×6 multi-layer hollow machine to fill the gaps in the domestic market and block imports, with excellent performance and price ratio. The production of fuel tanks meets European and Japanese standards, supporting Mazda and Chery models.

Compared with metal fuel tanks, plastic fuel tanks have the following advantages:

(1) The plastic fuel tank of the same specification is 40 to 500% lighter than a metal fuel tank;

(2) The plastic fuel tank has a large degree of freedom in shape, which can make the best use of the available space in the car, thereby greatly increasing the fuel storage capacity of the car's fuel tank.

(3) The development cycle of plastic fuel tanks is shorter than that of metal fuel tanks, and the cost is low, which facilitates the design, manufacture and modification of automobiles.

(4) The safety and reliability of plastic fuel tanks is high, impact resistance, corrosion resistance, and no explosion are unmatched by metal fuel tanks.

3. SCJ70AT hollow machine

It is specially designed for the production of ventilation ducts, single-layer fuel tanks, water tanks, etc. for cars, specialization and modular design.
4. SCJ1000 hollow machine

It is used to produce large-scale products such as 1000L IBC barrels, 1000×1200mm trays, and desktop boards. Its production efficiency is much higher than similar domestic equipment and is close to the German equipment efficiency.

5. SCJ30×2 double station hollow machine

Mainly used for the production of 15 ~ 30L chemical packaging barrels for chemical products such as phosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The production efficiency is increased by 50% to 100% compared to the single station, and two different products can be produced at the same time in two stations.

Fourth, the development trend of domestic hollow products

With the rapid development of the automotive industry, packaging industry and the entire industry, plastic hollow products have developed into a variety of products, diversification, specialization, and large-scale development. Products have penetrated into automobiles, chemicals, food, logistics, agriculture, fisheries, stadiums, Military and many other fields. Hollow products mainly have the following development trends:

1. Automotive Industry Applications

According to the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" of China's machinery industry and the 2010 plan, by 2005 and 2010, China's auto production will reach 3 million vehicles and 4.6 million vehicles respectively. Due to the improvement of technology, the proportion of automotive plastics in China will gradually increase. By 2005, the use of plastic parts for cars in China will basically reach 90kg/vehicle (the current amount of auto plastic parts used in developed countries is 100kg/vehicle), and the total demand for plastics for all types of vehicles is expected to reach 350,000 tons, reaching in 2010. 417,000 tons.

In plastics for automobiles, PE accounts for about 7%. The main purpose is to use various types of tanks such as automobile fuel tanks, vent pipes, deflectors, and water tanks that are produced by blow molding.

2. Logistics tray

Trays are indispensable consumables in the modern logistics industry during storage and transportation. At present, there are about 80 million flow trays in China every year, of which 20 million trays are used for export. The trays are mainly made of wood, and there are other materials such as paper, plastic, metal, wood and plastic, and the development speed is plastic. The fastest growing. Among these trays, the hollow blow molded trays have the best strength and longevity. At present, there are only 3 production lines for hollow trays in China, and the annual output is about 250,000. It can be seen that hollow blow-molded pallets have great market potential.

3. IBC packaging barrel

In recent years, IBC drums have grown rapidly abroad. The annual growth in the European market is about 8 to 10%. The IBC packaging barrels in the United States have grown rapidly, reaching about 20%. IBC barrels have the advantages of saving more than 30% of transportation space, low transportation costs, and easy lifting. In recent years, IBC barrels have also developed rapidly in China. This product mainly competes in the market of 10L to 20L chemical barrels.

4. Large industrial products

Domestic hollow desktop boards, medical bed boards, military buoyancy tanks, stadium seats, etc. have developed rapidly in the East China and South China markets, opening up new fields for hollow products.

5. Plastic beer bottle

Glass beer bottles have good barrier properties, but they are fragile, explosive, and easy to break. PET or PEN beer bottles developed by Germany's Sidel, Japan's ASB, and Japan's Qingmugu, have solved barrier and heat resistance problems. Manufacturers have started production in China, and this will be a huge market.

6. Chemical packaging still has a stable market

With the development of the chemical industry, the market for 10L to 20L chemical drum packaging is still steadily increasing by 10% to 20% every year.

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